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中国首创资本董事长傅成:再次抓大放小 推动中国经济腾飞 — 中国日报

April 26th, 2016 Comments off

 

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中国首创资本董事长傅成:再次抓大放小 推动中国经济腾飞

傅成 2016-04-08

 

中国首创资本董事长傅成:再次抓大放小 推动中国经济腾飞

福建闽侯戴姆勒汽车工业有限公司流水作业线场景。与2015年一二月同期相比,德国在华投资上涨了59%,达到4.1亿美元。图片来源:中国日报

我对中国的切身体验可以追溯到1981年改革开放初期。可我却记不起什么时候外界,尤其是英文媒体,如此悲观看待中国经济了。没错,现在中国大概面临着前所未有的巨大转变和挑战。

然而这种对中国经济的负面展望过于夸张了,而 且更是基于错误的前提。中国其实不需要寻找新的经济模式促进经济繁荣。与之相反,中国目前正重新沿用一简单方法,而且该方法之前也很奏效。那就是一方面向 国有企业施压以提高其效益,另一方面充分利用中国极其丰富、宝贵的“天然资源”——中国人民的企业家精神,这些具有企业家精神的人才能够开展创业、带来新 就业机会、成功开创新事业。

从20世纪90年代起,这二者相结合就为经济增长提供了动力。那时,国有企业大概占中国经济总量的90%之多。然而时至今日,大部分国企份额已降至40%以下。国企曾是推动经济增长的发动机,现如今就更像个锚链。国企利润不断减少,债务却急剧增加。

目前而言,阻止国企走下坡路至关重要。中国政 府也一直计划对国企进行改革,但是,国企改革不仅比以往更迫切,也更困难。1991年首次对国企进行了认真的改革,与那时相比,如今的国企则变得更少了。 那时幸存下来的企业,大多现已成为大公司,并且跻身于世界超级大公司之列。要对规模如此之大的超级大公司进行调整实非易事。

然而,中国朝着该方向迈出了关键的前几步。中 国政府将国企划分为两类:一类是完全基于市场原则运作的企业,另一类则是履行社会功能的企业。中国政府也在缩减两大赤字行业的规模——煤矿与钢铁工业。有 些大型国企的高管被解聘了,也有些因贪污而被调查;此外,将国企员工的薪资更直接地与企业利润挂钩也在试行中。

就我看来,推动国企及其附属公司采取行动让自 己跻身于世界最好而非较好的公司之列,这点虽然较少提及,但也很重要。主营半导体产品的清华紫光集团、建造并运行核电站的中国核工业集团与中广核集团,以 及进军老年医疗保健的中国中信集团,都在追求闻名世界的声誉。在大部分国企缓慢前行时,这些企业都在全力冲刺。

幸好中国企业部门的总体形势看来还比较乐观。中国企业需要的只是一个更公平的竞争环境。并且,进一步开放私营企业的重要措施也在实施,例如:减少税收、放宽银行贷款限制、逐渐开放那些因保护国有垄断企业而长期向私企关闭的市场。医疗保健就是个很好的例子。

这一系列举措就是属于中国政府所说的新“供给 侧”政策。其目的就在于为竞争与效率扫除障碍。中国企业家才智一流,这次又可以发现并掌握机遇,大显身手一番。他们目前也领导着中国欠发达的服务业向前发 展。而且,除了制造业和出口,这些服务业也将会带来新就业机会、创造利润以及促进经济增长。

像农业等低效率的行业也暗含众多机遇,它们也 在等待那些具有聪明才智的企业家,希望他们可以迅速使既实惠又安全的食品流通到市场。城市中传统的零售业已遭到网购的重击。那些还在苦苦挣扎的购物中心已 成为企业家的大型实验室,他们就在那里思考中国消费者如何进行购物、游玩、享受美食,以及思考如何款待这些消费者。

与1991年相比而言,中国目前的经济规模比那时大了30倍,并且也要复杂得多;而且,25年前的私营企业确实处在发展初期。然而,中国目前从其最初实行的政策中确实仍能获益匪浅,该政策就是推动国企进行改革,同时鼓励企业家大展身手满足中国消费者的需求。

关于作者:傅成(Peter Fuhrman),中国首创资本公司董事长兼首席执行官

http://cn.chinadaily.com.cn/2016-04/08/content_24388002.htm

中国日报署名的评论 — Reworking a formula for economic success

April 15th, 2016 Comments off

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Reworking a formula for economic success

By PETER FUHRMAN (China Daily) Updated: 2016-04-08

Reworking a formula for economic success
An assembly line of a Daimler AG venture in Minhou, Fujian province.

My on-the-ground experience in China stretches back to the beginnings of the reform era in 1981. Yet I cannot recall a time when so much pessimism, especially in English-language media, has surrounded the Chinese economy. Yes, it is a time of large, perhaps unprecedented transition and challenge.

But the negative outlook is overdone, and starts from a false premise. China does not need to search for a new economic model to generate further prosperity. Instead, what is happening now is a return to a simple formula that has previously worked extraordinarily well: applying pressure on China’s State-owned enterprises to improve their efficiency and profitability, while also doing more to tap China’s most abundant and valuable “natural resource”-the entrepreneurial spirit of the Chinese people, the talent to start a company, provide new jobs and build a successful new business.

These two together provided the impetus for the economic growth since the 1990s. In the 1990s, SOEs accounted for perhaps as much as 90 percent of China’s total economic output. Today, the SOEs’ share has fallen to below 40 percent by most counts. Once the main engine of growth, SOEs are now more like an anchor. Profits across the SOEs have been sinking, while their debt has risen sharply.

Arresting that slide of SOEs is now vital. SOE reform has long been on the agenda of the Chinese government. But such a reform has become more urgent than ever, as well as more difficult. There are fewer SOEs today than in 1991 when serious SOE reform was first undertaken. Among those that remain, many are now extremely big and rank among the biggest companies in the world. The restructuring of any such large company is always difficult.

China, however, has taken some key first steps in that direction. The Chinese government has divided SOEs into those that will operate entirely based on market principles and those that perform a social function. It is downsizing the coal and steel industries, two of the largest red-ink sectors. Senior managers of some large SOEs have been dismissed or are under investigation for corruption, and experiments linking SOEs’ salaries more directly with profitability are underway.

Less noticed, but in my opinion, as important is a strong push now at some SOEs and SOE-affiliated companies to become not better but among the best in the world at what they do. Tsinghua Unigroup in semiconductors, China National Nuclear Corporation and China General Nuclear Power in building and operating nuclear power plants, and CITIC Group in eldercare are seeking global glory. They are trying to sprint while most other SOEs are limping.

Luckily for China, the overall situation in the entrepreneurial sector is far rosier. All it needs is a more level playing field. Important steps to further free up the private sector are now underway-taxes are being cut, banks pushed to lend more, and markets long closed to protect SOE monopolies are being pried open. Healthcare is a good example in this regard.

All these moves are part of what the government calls its new “supply side” policy. The aim is to demolish barriers to competition and efficiency. Chinese entrepreneurs have shown time and again they have world-class aptitude to spot and seize opportunities. They are leading the charge now into China’s underdeveloped service sector. This, more than manufacturing or exports, is where new jobs, profits and growth will come from.

Opportunities also await smart entrepreneurs in less efficient industries like agriculture, in getting food products to market quickly, cheaply and safely. In cities, traditional retail has been hit hard by online shopping. Struggling shopping malls are becoming giant laboratories where entrepreneurs are incubating new ideas on how Chinese consumers will shop, play, eat and be entertained.

China’s economy is now 30 times larger than what it was in 1991, and far more complex. The private sector 25 years ago was then truly in its infancy. But, there is still huge scope today for China to gain from its original policy prescription: prodding SOEs to get in line for reform while letting entrepreneurs meet the needs of Chinese consumers.

The author is chairman and CEO of China First Capital.

 

http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/opinion/2016-04/08/content_24364851.htm